Bone marrow transplant is treatment for patients suffering with specific illnesses or tumors by transferring transfer healthy bone marrow cells into the patient. It is also known as stem cell transplant because cells from the stem cells are taken during BMT surgery.
With BMT treatment a patient can regain your previous health and easily combat risky conditions like cancer. In this article we will learn everything about bone marrow transplant in detail.
Types of Bone Marrow Transplant Surgery
Doctors perform various types of bone marrow transplants surgery depending on the donor available for the patient. These include:
- Allergenic Bone Marrow Transplant:
A donor with a patient’s genetic type must be used for this implant. The stem cells are then extracted through aphaeresis or bone marrow donation from a donor who matches genetically. Usually, a sister or brother is involved.
- Unrelated Bone Marrow Transplant:
Unrelated donors supply bone marrow or genetically compatible stem cells. These kinds of donors can be found through national bone marrow registries.
- The parent as donor:
A haploid-identical match occurs when the genetic match is at least substantially identical to the receiver, and the donor is a parent.
Umbilical cord blood transplant:
The umbilical cord stem cells are harvested shortly after a baby is delivered. When compared to stem cells extracted from the bone marrow of another adult or child, they reproduce into functional and mature blood cells that are more effective.
- Autologous Bone Marrow Transplant:
Even a patient is a donor. In this transplant, bone marrow or aphaeresis is used to remove stem cells from the patient. After being frozen, these cells are then returned to a patient. This procedure is referred to as rescue.
Who Should Opt for BMT?
Certain conditions necessitate a bone marrow transplant. The following individuals can receive a standard bone marrow transplant:
- Individuals with genetic illnesses that can damage various body parts
- Patients who are undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy for cancer who have bone marrow destruction
- Patients whose bone marrow stem cells are flawed or faulty
- Despite their related disease, those who are generally in good health
Procedure of Bone Marrow Transplant:
A bone marrow transplant depends on a number of factors, including the disease that needs it, the type of transplant, and the patient’s tolerance for specific treatments. The following measures are part of the strategy:
- High doses of radiation therapy and chemotherapy are used in the process of preparing for a bone marrow transplant. This is necessary to both treat a specific disease and make enough room in the bone marrow for the development of new cells. This therapy is known as myeloablative or ablative because of how it affects the bone marrow. The bone marrow produces the majority of the blood cells in the body. The marrow becomes empty when the cell generation is stopped by ablative or myeloablative therapy. The new stem cells need an empty marrow to develop and establish them as a new blood cell production system.
- Following the administration of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the bone marrow transplant is administered by a central venous catheter into the bloodstream. This treatment is not thought of as a surgical one. The stem cells enter the bone marrow, where they begin to develop into healthy blood cells.
- Following the transplant, supportive care is provided in order to reduce the risk of complications, infections, and side effects. Cleanliness of the environment, regular blood tests, daily weight checks, exact measurements of fluid intake and output, and vital sign monitoring are all part of this care.
Patients may be advised to stay close to the hospital for close monitoring for a few weeks to months, depending on the type of transplant and the likelihood of problems. The patient might need to stay in the hospital for a few more days if infection-related issues arise. A few weeks may pass before the blood count rises. Blood tests and other tests may be carried out within a few days or weeks after the transplant to assess the patient’s health.
To treat issues like nausea and diarrhea, several drugs may be administered. The patient could need regular transfusions of platelets and red blood cells until the bone marrow produces cells on its own. The patient is more susceptible to infections and problems for several months to years following the transplant. As a result, protection must be taken after the bone transplant.
The following steps could help to avoid issues and hasten the healing process:
- Keep a healthy weight.
- Consume a lot of fruit and veggies
- Decrease your alcohol intake.
- Keep hydrated.
- Regular exercise
Medical Tourism for Bone Marrow Transplant:
Nowadays, medical tourism is a popular phenomenon for people struggling with expensive and sluggish medical care in their own country. Due to these problems patient began to seek medical care abroad. Top medical tourism destinations like India, Turkey, Thailand Mexico offer cheaper and quality treatment compared to other countries.
BMT is an expensive and complex procedure and many countries doesn’t have expertise to perform this complex surgery therefore thousands of patients travel to countries like India and Turkey for bone marrow transplant. The bone marrow transplant cost in these countries are affordable as well as the quality of the treatment is at par with any developed western country.
Everything depends on the caliber of the hospital where you receive the transplant. In the area of bone marrow and stem cell transplantation, many countries are significant countries.
Numerous hospitals and reputable clinics provide effective and economic BMT transplant services. Therefore, they used to organize your medical trip and be ready to stay pleasant while receiving the most excellent stem cell transplant available.